This paper provides a sample of a LaTeX document which conforms to the formatting guidelines for ACM SIG Proceedings. It complements the document *Author’s Guide to Preparing ACM SIG Proceedings Using LaTeX2 _{ε} and BibTeX*. This source file has been written with the intention of being compiled under LaTeX2

The developers have tried to include every imaginable sort of bells and whistles

, such as a subtitle, footnotes on title, subtitle and authors, as well as in the text, and every optional component (e.g. Acknowledgments, Additional Authors, Appendices), not to mention examples of equations, theorems, tables and figures.

To make best use of this sample document, run it through LaTeX and BibTeX, and compare this source code with the printed output produced by the dvi file.

H.4 [**Information Systems Applications**]: Miscellaneous;

The *proceedings* are the records of a conference. ACM seeks to give these conference by-products a uniform, high-quality appearance. To do this, ACM has some rigid requirements for the format of the proceedings documents: there is a specified format (balanced double columns), a specified set of fonts (Arial or Helvetica and Times Roman) in certain specified sizes (for instance, 9 point for body copy), a specified live area (18 × 23.5 cm [7″ × 9.25″]) centered on the page, specified size of margins (1.9 cm [0.75″]) top, (2.54 cm [1″]) bottom and (1.9 cm [.75″]) left and right; specified column width (8.45 cm [3.33″]) and gutter size (.83 cm [.33″]).

The good news is, with only a handful of manual settings`\numberofauthors`

and `\alignauthor`

commands, you have already used; another, `\balancecolumns`

, will be used in your very last run of LaTeX to ensure balanced column heights on the last page.

The remainder of this document is concerned with showing, in the context of an actual

document, the LaTeX commands specifically available for denoting the structure of a proceedings paper, rather than with giving rigorous descriptions or explanations of such commands.

Typically, the body of a paper is organized into a hierarchical structure, with numbered or unnumbered headings for sections, subsections, sub-subsections, and even smaller sections. The command \section that precedes this paragraph is part of such a hierarchy.

Because the entire article is contained in the **document** environment, you can indicate the start of a new paragraph with a blank line in your input file; that is why this sentence forms a separate paragraph.

We have already seen several typeface changes in this sample. You can indicate italicized words or phrases in your text with the command `\textit`

; emboldening with the command `\textbf`

and typewriter-style (for instance, for computer code) with `\texttt`

. But remember, you do not have to indicate typestyle changes when such changes are part of the *structural* elements of your article; for instance, the heading of this subsection will be in a sans serif

You can use whatever symbols, accented characters, or non-English characters you need anywhere in your document; you can find a complete list of what is available in the *LaTeX User’s Guide*5.

You may want to display math equations in three distinct styles: inline, numbered or non-numbered display. Each of the three are discussed in the next sections.

A formula that appears in the running text is called an inline or in-text formula. It is produced by the **math** environment, which can be invoked with the usual `\begin. . .\end`

construction or with the short form `$. . .$`

. You can use any of the symbols and structures, from α to ω, available in LaTeX5; this section will simply show a few examples of in-text equations in context. Notice how this equation:
lim_{$n$→∞}
$x=0$
, set here in in-line math style, looks slightly different when set in display style. (See next section).

A numbered display equation – one set off by vertical space from the text and centered horizontally – is produced by the **equation** environment. An unnumbered display equation is produced by the **displaymath** environment.

Again, in either environment, you can use any of the symbols and structures available in LaTeX; this section will just give a couple of examples of display equations in context. First, consider the equation, shown as an inline equation above:

$\begin{array}{c}\underset{n\to \infty}{\mathrm{lim}}x=0\end{array}$

Notice how it is formatted somewhat differently in the **displaymath** environment. Now, we’ll enter an unnumbered equation:

$\begin{array}{c}{\displaystyle \sum _{i=0}^{\infty}}x+1\hfill \end{array}$

and follow it with another numbered equation:

$\begin{array}{c}\sum _{i=0}^{\infty}{x}_{i}={\int}_{0}^{\pi +2}f\hfill \end{array}$

just to demonstrate LaTeX’s able handling of numbering.

Citations to articles `.tex`

file 5. The key is a short reference you invent to uniquely identify each work; in this sample document, the key is the first author’s surname and a word from the title. This identifying key is included with each item in the `.bib`

file for your article.

The details of the construction of the `.bib`

file are beyond the scope of this sample document, but more information can be found in the *Author’s Guide*, and exhaustive details in the *LaTeX User’s Guide*5.

This article shows only the plainest form of the citation command, using `\cite`

. This is what is stipulated in the SIGS style specifications. No other citation format is endorsed.

Because tables cannot be split across pages, the best placement for them is typically the top of the page nearest their initial cite. To ensure this proper floating

placement of tables, use the environment **table** to enclose the table’s contents and the table caption. The contents of the table itself must go in the **tabular** environment, to be aligned properly in rows and columns, with the desired horizontal and vertical rules. Again, detailed instructions on **tabular** material is found in the *LaTeX User’s Guide*.

Immediately following this sentence is the point at which 1 is included in the input file; compare the placement of the table here with the table in the printed dvi output of this document.

Non-English or Math | Frequency | Comments |
---|---|---|

Ø | 1 in 1,000 | For Swedish names |

π | 1 in 5 | Common in math |

$ | 4 in 5 | Used in business |

${\Psi}_{1}^{2}$ | 1 in 40,000 | Unexplained usage |

To set a wider table, which takes up the whole width of the page’s live area, use the environment **table*** to enclose the table’s contents and the table caption. As with a single-column table, this wide table will float

to a location deemed more desirable. Immediately following this sentence is the point at which 2 is included in the input file; again, it is instructive to compare the placement of the table here with the table in the printed dvi output of this document.

Like tables, figures cannot be split across pages; the best placement for them is typically the top or the bottom of the page nearest their initial cite. To ensure this proper floating

placement of figures, use the environment **figure** to enclose the figure and its caption.

This sample document contains examples of **.eps** and **.ps** files to be displayable with LaTeX. More details on each of these is found in the *Author’s Guide*.

As was the case with tables, you may want a figure that spans two columns. To do this, and still to ensure proper floating

placement of tables, use the environment **figure*** to enclose the figure and its caption.

Note that either **.ps** or **.eps** formats are used; use the `\epsfig`

or `\psfig`

commands as appropriate for the different file types.

Other common constructs that may occur in your article are the forms for logical constructs like theorems, axioms, corollaries and proofs. There are two forms, one produced by the command `\newtheorem`

and the other by the command `\newdef`

; perhaps the clearest and easiest way to distinguish them is to compare the two in the output of this sample document:

This uses the **theorem** environment, created by the `\newtheorem`

command:

Let $f$ be continuous on $[a,b]$. If G is an antiderivative for f on [a, b], then

$\begin{array}{c}{\displaystyle \underset{a}{\overset{b}{\int}}}f\left(t\right)dt=G\left(b\right)-G\left(a\right).\hfill \end{array}$

The other uses the **definition** environment, created by the `\newdef`

command:

If $z$ is irrational, then by ${e}^{z}$ we mean the unique number which has logarithm $z$:

$log{e}^{z}=z$

Two lists of constructs that use one of these forms is given in the *Author’s Guidelines*.

There is one other similar construct environment, which is already set up for you; i.e. you must *not* use a `\newdef`

command to create it: the **proof** environment. Here is a example of its use:

Suppose on the contrary there exists a real number $L$ such that

$\begin{array}{c}{\displaystyle \underset{x\to \infty}{\mathrm{lim}}}\genfrac{}{}{0.1ex}{}{f\left(x\right)}{g\left(x\right)}=L.\hfill \end{array}$

Then

$\begin{array}{c}l={\displaystyle \underset{x\to c}{\mathrm{lim}}}f\left(x\right)={\displaystyle \underset{x\to c}{\mathrm{lim}}}[gx\cdot \genfrac{}{}{0.1ex}{}{f\left(x\right)}{g\left(x\right)}]={\displaystyle \underset{x\to c}{\mathrm{lim}}}g\left(x\right)\cdot {\displaystyle \underset{x\to c}{\mathrm{lim}}}\genfrac{}{}{0.1ex}{}{f\left(x\right)}{g\left(x\right)}=0\cdot L=0,\hfill \end{array}$

which contradicts our assumption that $l\ne 0$.

Complete rules about using these environments and using the two different creation commands are in the *Author’s Guide*; please consult it for more detailed instructions. If you need to use another construct, not listed therein, which you want to have the same formatting as the Theorem or the Definition6 shown above, use the `\newtheorem`

or the `\newdef`

command, respectively, to create it.

Command | A Number | Comments |
---|---|---|

`\alignauthor` |
100 | Author alignment |

`\numberofauthors` |
200 | Author enumeration |

`\table` |
300 | For tables |

`\table*` |
400 | For wider tables |

Because you have just been given permission to use the `\newdef`

command to create a new form, you might think you can use TeX’s `\def`

to create a new command: *Please refrain from doing this!* Remember that your LaTeX source code is primarily intended to create camera-ready copy, but may be converted to other forms – e.g. HTML. If you inadvertently omit some or all of the `\def`

s recompilation will be, to say the least, problematic.

This paragraph will end the body of this sample document. Remember that you might still have Acknowledgments or Appendices; brief samples of these follow. There is still the Bibliography to deal with; and we will make a disclaimer about that here: with the exception of the reference to the LaTeX book, the citations in this paper are to articles which have nothing to do with the present subject and are used as examples only.

This section is optional; it is a location for you to acknowledge grants, funding, editing assistance and what have you. In the present case, for example, the authors would like to thank Gerald Murray of ACM for his help in codifying this *Author’s Guide* and the **.cls** and **.tex** files that it describes.

Additional authors: John Smith (The Thørväld Group, email: `[email protected]`

) and Julius P. Kumquat (The Kumquat Consortium, email: `[email protected]`

).

The rules about hierarchical headings discussed above for the body of the article are different in the appendices. In the appendix environment, the command section is used to indicate the start of each Appendix, with alphabetic order designation (i.e. the first is A, the second B, etc.) and a title (if you include one). So, if you need hierarchical structure within an Appendix, start with subsection as the highest level. Here is an outline of the body of this document in Appendix-appropriate form:

Generated by bibtex from your .bib file. Run latex, then bibtex, then latex twice (to resolve references) to create the .bbl file. Insert that .bbl file into the .tex source file and comment out the command `\thebibliography`

.